Supported Scientific Studies

CARRIER OIL BLEND: SKIN PERMEATION

Anna Herman, Andrzej P Herman, Essential oils and their constituents as skin penetration enhancer for transdermal drug delivery: a review, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 67, Issue 4, April 2015, Pages 473–485, https://doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12334

 

Alhasso, B.; Ghori, M.U.; Conway, B.R. Systematic Review on the Effectiveness of Essential and Carrier Oils as Skin Penetration Enhancers in Pharmaceutical Formulations. Sci. Pharm. 202290, 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90010014

 

Schafer N, Balwierz R, Biernat P, Ochędzan-Siodłak W, Lipok J. Natural Ingredients of Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems as Permeation Enhancers of Active Substances through the Stratum Corneum. Mol Pharm. 2023 Jul 3;20(7):3278-3297.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.3c00126

OPTIMAL SKIN HYDRATION & TEMPERATURE FOR APPLICATION

LaCount TD, Zhang Q, Hao J, Ghosh P, Raney SG, Talattof A, Kasting GB, Li SK. Modeling Temperature-Dependent Dermal Absorption and Clearance for Transdermal and Topical Drug Applications. AAPS J. 2020 May 10;22(3):70.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644225/

 

SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTION

Qiu Y, Ruan H. Supercritical CO2 extraction, chemical composition, and antioxidant effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. oleoresin. Open Life Sci. 2022 Aug 8;17(1):816-826. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9360582/

 

Uwineza PA, Waśkiewicz A. Recent Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Natural Bioactive Compounds from Natural Plant Materials. Molecules. 2020 Aug 24;25(17):3847. .https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504334/

 

HERBAL INGREDIENT EFFICACY

Chili Pepper

Fattori V, Hohmann MS, Rossaneis AC, Pinho-Ribeiro FA, Verri WA. Capsaicin: Current Understanding of Its Mechanisms and Therapy of Pain and Other Pre-Clinical and Clinical Uses. Molecules. 2016 Jun 28;21(7):844. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6273101/

 

Menthol

Sundstrup E, Jakobsen MD, Brandt M, Jay K, Colado JC, Wang Y, Andersen LL. Acute effect of topical menthol on chronic pain in slaughterhouse workers with carpal tunnel syndrome: triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Rehabil Res Pract. 2014;2014:310913. doi: 10.1155/2014/310913. Epub 2014 Sep 15. PMID: 25298894; PMCID: PMC4178917.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4178917/

 

 

Arnica

Smith AG, Miles VN, Holmes DT, Chen X, Lei W. Clinical Trials, Potential Mechanisms, and Adverse Effects of Arnica as an Adjunct Medication for Pain Management. Medicines (Basel). 2021 Oct 9;8(10):58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8537440/

 

Ginger

Rondanelli M, Fossari F, Vecchio V, Gasparri C, Peroni G, Spadaccini D, Riva A, Petrangolini G, Iannello G, Nichetti M, Infantino V, Perna S. Clinical trials on pain lowering effect of ginger: A narrative review. Phytother Res. 2020 Nov;34(11):2843-2856. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754412/

 

Camphor

Hoang D, Wong A, Olympia RP. Looking Back to Move Forward: The Current State of Research on the Clinical Applications of Camphor- and Menthol-Containing Agents. Cureus. 2023 Jul 5;15(7):e41426. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10403385/

 

Frankincense

Hu D, Wang C, Li F, Su S, Yang N, Yang Y, Zhu C, Shi H, Yu L, Geng X, Gu L, Yuan X, Wang Z, Yu G, Tang Z. A Combined Water Extract of Frankincense and Myrrh Alleviates Neuropathic Pain in Mice via Modulation of TRPV1. Neural Plast. 2017;2017:3710821. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504955/

 

Calendula

Shahane K, Kshirsagar M, Tambe S, Jain D, Rout S, Ferreira MKM, Mali S, Amin P, Srivastav PP, Cruz J, Lima RR. An Updated Review on the Multifaceted Therapeutic Potential of Calendula officinalis L. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2023 Apr 18;16(4):611. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10142266/

 

 

Black Pepper (Piperine)

Bang JS, Oh DH, Choi HM, Sur BJ, Lim SJ, Kim JY, Yang HI, Yoo MC, Hahm DH, Kim KS. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of piperine in human interleukin 1beta-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in rat arthritis models. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11(2):R49 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2688199/

 

Turmeric (curcumin)

Hewlings SJ, Kalman DS. Curcumin: A Review of Its Effects on Human Health. Foods. 2017 Oct 22;6(10):92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664031/

 

Clove Oil

Yousef A. TaherAwatef M. SamudFathy E. El-TaherGhazala ben-HussinJamal S. ElmezogiBadryia F. Al-Mehdawi & Hanan A. Salem (2015) Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice, Libyan Journal of Medicine, 10:1, DOI:  10.3402/ljm.v10.28685

Wintergreen

Michel, P.; Olszewska, M.A. Phytochemistry and Biological Profile of Gaultheria procumbens L. and Wintergreen Essential Oil: From Traditional Application to Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 202425, 565. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25010565

 

Peppermint

Hui Zhao, Shan Ren, Han Yang, Shun Tang, Chenyang Guo, Maolun Liu, Qiu Tao, Tianqi Ming, Haibo Xu, Peppermint essential oil: its phytochemistry, biological activity, pharmacological effect and application, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 154, 2022, 113559, ISSN 0753-3322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113559

 

Eucalyptus

Nikhil Chandorkar, Srushti Tambe, Purnima Amin, Chandu Madankar, A systematic and comprehensive review on current understanding of the pharmacological actions, molecular mechanisms, and clinical implications of the genus Eucalyptus, Phytomedicine Plus, Volume 1, Issue 4, 2021, 100089, ISSN 2667-0313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phyplu.2021.100089

 

St. John’s

Galeotti N. Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) beyond depression: A therapeutic perspective for pain conditions. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Mar 22;200:136-146. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28216196/

 

 

Rosemary

Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Hosseinzadeh H. Therapeutic effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its active constituents on nervous system disorders. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Sep;23(9):1100-1112. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491497/

 

Juniper

Raina R, Verma PK, Peshin R, Kour H. Potential of Juniperus communis L as a nutraceutical in human and veterinary medicine. Heliyon. 2019 Aug 31;5(8):e02376. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6726717/

 

 

Lavender

de Melo Alves Silva LC, de Oliveira Mendes FC, de Castro Teixeira F, de Lima Fernandes TE, Barros Ribeiro KR, da Silva Leal KC, Dantas DV, Neves Dantas RA. Use of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil as a complementary therapy in adult health care: A scoping review. Heliyon. 2023 Apr 14;9(5):e15446. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10160692/

 

Olive Oil

Fezai M, Senovilla L, Jemaà M, Ben-Attia M. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extra virgin olive oil. J Lipids. 2013;2013:129736. doi: 10.1155/2013/129736. Epub 2013 Dec 23. PMID: 24455277; PMCID: PMC3884608. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3884608/

 

 

Jojoba Oil

Gad HA, Roberts A, Hamzi SH, Gad HA, Touiss I, Altyar AE, Kensara OA, Ashour ML. Jojoba Oil: An Updated Comprehensive Review on Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Uses, and Toxicity. Polymers (Basel). 2021 May 24;13(11):1711. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197201/

 

Coconut Oil

Varma SR, Sivaprakasam TO, Arumugam I, Dilip N, Raghuraman M, Pavan KB, Rafiq M, Paramesh R. In vitro anti-inflammatory and skin protective properties of Virgin coconut oil. J Tradit Complement Med. 2018 Jan 17;9(1):5-14.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335493/

 

 

Sweet Almond Oil

Lin, T.-K.; Zhong, L.; Santiago, J.L. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 201819, 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010070

 

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF PAIN PILLS

Larson AM, Polson J, Fontana RJ, Davern TJ, Lalani E, Hynan LS, Reisch JS, Schiødt FV, Ostapowicz G, Shakil AO, Lee WM; Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure: results of a United States multicenter, prospective study. Hepatology. 2005 Dec;42(6):1364-72. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16317692/

 

Ungprasert P, Cheungpasitporn W, Crowson CS, Matteson EL. Individual non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of acute kidney injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Eur J Intern Med. 2015 May;26(4):285-91. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25862494/

 

Trelle S, Reichenbach S, Wandel S, Hildebrand P, Tschannen B, Villiger PM, Egger M, Jüni P. Cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011 Jan 11;342:c7086. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21224324/

 

Walter RB, Milano F, Brasky TM, White E. Long-term use of acetaminophen, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of hematologic malignancies: results from the prospective Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) study. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Jun 10;29(17):2424-31. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21555699/